Fall in Iran’s energy production in 2019.
The USA and China were the main contributors to the increase in global energy production in 2019, posting a significant growth in crude oil production and coal production, respectively.
2019 Key data for energy production are as follows:
- Crude oil: -0.7% driven by the fall in production in the Middle East (vs. +1.2%/year over 2000-2018)
- Gas: +4% propelled by the USA, Russia and Australia (vs. +2.5%/year over 2000-2018)
- Coal: 0%, with growth in China (+4%) offset by drops in India, the USA and the EU (compared with +3%/year over 2000-2018)
- Electricity: +1%, spurred by China, with declines in Europe, the USA and Japan (down from +3.1%/year over 2000-2018)
Energy production also grew in Russia and Australia (new LNG projects coming on stream), in Brazil (oil production rise), in South Africa (higher coal production) and in Turkey (surge in hydropower generation).
On the contrary, energy production continued to decline in Europe (especially coal production in Germany and Poland, and crude oil production in Norway and the Netherlands, where oil and gas resources tend to decrease). In the Middle East, US sanctions cut Iran’s energy production by nearly 15%, while Saudi Arabia reduced its crude oil production in line with the OPEC+ agreement.
According to the French Syndicat des Energies Renouvelables (SER), France's total renewable energy capacity (wind, solar, hydropower, and bioenergy) has reached 55.3 GW in September 2020, with solar PV surpassing the 10 GW milestone. This means that solar PV capacity is halfway from reaching the Pluriannual Energy Programming's (PPE) target for 2023 of 20,100 MW. Wind capacity reached 17.2 GW, i.e. 71.5% of the 24,100 MW target foreseen for 2023 under the PPE. Furthermore, the hydropower capacity reached 25.7 GW (+170 MW over the same period of 2019), over 99% of the PPE's target, while bioenergy capacity reached 2.15 GW.
According to the European Union (EU) Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER), the amount of cross-border capacity available for trade among Member States remains insufficient to meet the minimum EU target of 70% by 2020. Cross-zonal capacity increased by 3% in 2019 compared to 2018 due to border-specific improvements (Poland-Czech Republic/Germany/Slovakia, Austrian borders, Greece-Italy, Bulgaria-Romania and Germany-Denmark). Moderate decreases, compared to 2018, were observed at the Swiss and Norwegian borders (-6%) and at a smaller scale in Italy North and Nordic regions (-2%). In addition, several Member States continue to use national capacity mechanisms, even if they do not always face an adequacy problem.
According to the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre, global CO2 emissions from energy combustion increased by 0.9% to 38 GtCO2 in 2019, driven by China (+3.4%, accounting for 30% of global emissions) and India (+1.6%, 7% of global emissions). Meanwhile, Japan (3% of global emissions) reduced its energy-related CO2 emissions by 2.1%, the United States (13% of total emissions) by 2.6% and Russia (5% of total emissions) by 0.8%.
According to the European Commission, primary energy consumption declined by 0.7% in 2018 (-0.1% only for final energy consumption), which is insufficient to meet the 2020 targets. The highest annual reductions in primary energy consumption were posted in Belgium, Austria and Greece, whereas the largest increases were observed in Estonia, Latvia and Luxembourg. Between 2005 and 2018, primary energy consumption decreased in all Member States except Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia and Poland. Primary energy intensity fell in all Member States between 2005 and 2018; however, it grew in Denmark, Estonia and Luxemburg in recent years (between 2015 and 2018).