Fall in energy production in the Middle East in 2020
World energy production fell by 3.5% in 2020, after 3 years of steady growth (+2.4%/year)
The COVID-19 had a tremendous impact on global energy demand and hence on energy production. 2020 Key data for energy production are as follows: - Crude oil: -6.1% driven by the global fall in the demand for oil products (transport restrictions and lower industrial demand) that prompted the OPEC+ to cut crude oil production by 9.7 mb/d between May and July 2020. - Gas: -2.5% with a stagnation of US gas production, and a drop in Russia and most producing countries (excepted Australia, China, Iran and Saudi Arabia) - Coal: -4.5%, with growth in China (+1.4%) and India (+1.2%) offset by drops in most of producing countries (Indonesia, United States, Australia, Russia, and South Africa) - Electricity: -0.6%, with growth in China (+3.7%) and declines in most countries Energy production grew in China, India (coal production), Brazil (significant growth in oil production), and South Korea (nuclear, hydropower and renewable power generation). On the contrary, energy production fell in the United States (especially coal), in Russia (lower oil production), in Canada (fall in oil and gas production), in Indonesia (strong decline in coal and gas production) and in Australia (lower coal production) and it continued to decline at an accelerated pace in the EU (especially coal production in Germany and Poland). In the Middle East, energy production fell noticeably (mainly oil and gas production) as the global downturn reduced oil and gas demand, leading Saudi Arabia and other OPEC+ members to implement historic cuts in crude oil production in 2020. As well, energy production declined in Latin America (fall in coal production in Colombia and new production decrease in Venezuela), and in Africa (strong drops in Nigeria, Algeria and Egypt).
According to the Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC), 6.1 GW of offshore wind capacity was installed in 2020 (down from 6.2 GW in 2019), including 3 GW in China, 1.5 GW in the Netherlands, and 0.7 GW in Belgium. More than 35 GW of offshore wind capacity is currently operational, with 29% of the total in the UK, 28% in China and 22% in Germany.
South Africa’s total greenhouse gas emissions excluding FOLU (forestry and other land use) increased by 14% between 2000 and 2017 to 513 MtCO2eq, according to the country’s 7th National Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventory Report. The energy sector is the largest contributor to emissions excluding FOLU (80%) and is responsible for 97% of the increase over 2000-2017. Energy industries were responsible for 61% of emissions from the energy sector in 2017. This was followed by transport (13%), other sectors (9%) and manufacturing industries and construction (7%).
According to the Turkish Electricity Transmission Corporation (TEIAŞ), installed wind capacity in Turkey reached the 10 GW threshold in early August 2021. Most of the capacity is located in the Izmir province (1.7 GW), followed by Balıkesir (1,300 MW), Çanakkale (850 MW), Manisa (750 MW), and Istanbul (420 MW). Wind represented 10% of the installed capacity connected to the transmission network (10,010 MW out of 98,800 MW) and over half (51.9 GW) was considered "clean" electricity. In the first half of 2021, wind power accounted for around 9% of the power generation, replacing nearly US$1bn in gas imports.
According to preliminary statistics from the Indian Ministry of Coal, India’s production of non-coking coal and lignite declined by 1.7% in the fiscal year 2020-21 to 708 Mt, including 671 Mt of non-coking coal (-1%) and 37 Mt of lignite (-12%). Of the total output of non-coking coal, 96% was produced the public sector, including 83% by Coal India Limited (CIL). Most of the lignite was extracted by NLC India Limited (53%). The country imported 164 Mt of non-coking coal in 2020-21 (-17%), mainly from Indonesia (56%), South Africa (19%) and Australia (11%).