New energy efficiency improvement in the USA in 2019, after slight rise in 2018.
Global energy intensity (total energy consumption per unit of GDP) improved by 2.1% in 2019, i.e. faster than its historical trend (-1.6%/year on average between 2000 and 2018 and -1.2% in 2018). However, this improvement remains far from the 3.5%/year decrease required to achieve the 2°C scenario.
Energy intensity levels and trends differ widely across world regions, reflecting differences in economic structure and energy efficiency achievements.
China’s energy intensity reduction continued in 2019 (-2.8%, close to its historical trend): in 2019, its energy intensity stood 44% below its 2000 level, still 17% above the world average.
Since 2000, the USA and the EU have cut their energy intensity by more than 30% thanks to energy efficiency efforts, to changes in the power mix (higher share of renewables and gas) and to a lesser extent to a structural shift toward less energy-intensive industry branches and the growing share of services in the GDP. Energy intensity in the EU was 33% below the world average in 2019, with reductions accelerating in 2019 compared to historical trends.
The high energy intensity in the CIS, the Middle East, China and some developing Asian countries is explained by the dominance of energy-intensive industries, commodity exporting-based economies and low energy prices that do not encourage energy efficiency. In 2019, energy intensity decreased in Asia (especially in India, Japan and South Korea), in Canada and in Mexico. It stayed stable in Russia (+0.4%, almost no change since 2010), where it remains twice as high as the global average, and increased in most Middle East countries.
According to the Ministry of Finance of Japan, crude oil imports decreased by 16% to 2.5 mb/d in 2020. They came mostly from the Middle East (90%). However, petroleum products imports, which were supplied by the Middle East (48%) and Asia (29%), rose by 11%. The country imported only 74.5 Mt of LNG in 2020 (-3.7%), from Asia (23%) and the Middle East (16%). Coal imports dropped by almost 7% to 174 Mt and were supplied from Asia (17%) and Russia (13%).
According to Angola’s National Oil and Gas Agency, the country’s oil production declined by 15% to 1.3 mb/d in 2020. Gas production reached 31 bcm in 2020 (85 mcm/d). Almost 5% of the natural gas production was flared in 2020. In 2020, over 61% of the total oil production came from deep water projects (20% from ultra-deep water and 17% from shallow waters). The blocks 17 and 32, operated by Total's Angolan affiliate TEPA, accounted for 46% of the country’s oil production and for nearly 23% of the gas production, while the Chevron-operated blocks 0 and 14 accounted for 19% of the total oil production and for nearly 45% of the domestic gas production.
According to the National Energy Administration (NEA), China added nearly 72 GW of wind power capacity and 48 GW of solar capacity in 2020. The growth in wind capacity additions accelerated in 2020 - from 26 GW added in 2019 - and exceeded 2019 global wind capacity additions by 12 GW. Part of this increase was linked to an earlier announcement of China ending subsidies for new onshore wind projects as of 2021. As well, solar capacity additions recovered after two years of slowdown (+44 GW in 2018 and +30 GW in 2019). Hydropower capacity increased by 13 GW in 2020. At the end of 2020, China had 282 GW of wind capacity and 253 GW of solar capacity. The country intends to increase its installed wind and solar capacity to 1,200 GW in 2030.
According to the Ministry of Energy of Indonesia, gasoline imports are expected to increase by 54% to 140 mbl, up from 91 mbl in 2020 and exceeding the pre-pandemic import level of 119 mbl in 2019. In addition, Indonesia’s gasoline sales should reach 233 mbl in 2021 (+32% compared to the 176 mbl level of 2020), while domestic gasoline production should increase by 9% from 86 mbl in 2020 to 94 mbl in 2021, close to its 2019 levels.
Indonesia is the largest importer of gasoline in Asia, and the fourth largest worldwide after the United States, Mexico and Nigeria (2019).