Energy efficiency improvement in Europe in 2018.
Global energy intensity (total energy consumption per unit of GDP) declined by 1.3% in 2018, slightly below its historical trend (-1.6%/year on average between 2000 and 2017).
Energy intensity levels and trends differ widely across world regions, reflecting differences in economic structure and energy efficiency achievements.
China’s energy intensity improved by almost 40% between 2000 and 2018, and 2.7% in the last year, driven by energy efficiency policies focused on energy-intensive industries.
Over time, China has developed and applied energy intensity reduction targets in response to significantly high energy-intense industries, bringing with it a strong demand for energy efficiency services.
Energy intensity in the United States increased in 2018 (+0.6%) compared to a decreasing trend (-1.9%/year) over the years 1990-2017.
Energy efficiency improvements continued in the European Union, the region with the lowest energy intensity in the world, with a higher rate (-3.1% in 2018) compared to the annual rate of reduction -1.8%/year measured over the 2000-2017 period. Contributing to this result, however, were the weather conditions (mild winter)
The energy intensity in the CIS region has decreased continuously since 2000 (-2.7%/year) but remains the highest in the world (75% above the worldwide average).
The high energy intensity in the CIS, the Middle East, China and other Asian developing countries is explained by the dominance of energy-intensive industries, commodity exporting-based economies and low energy prices that do not encourage energy efficiency.
According to the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA), the installed wind power capacity in the United States has reached 100 GW in the third quarter of 2019 (from over 94 GW at the end of 2018), enough to supply power to 32 million US households. Wind installations accelerated in the third quarter of 2019, with 8 new large power projects totalling 1.9 GW commissioned.
According to the annual report on the functioning of the European carbon market, greenhouse gras (GHG) emissions from installations covered by the EU ETS decreased by 4.1% (around 73 MtCO2eq) to 1,682 MtCO2eq in 2018, thanks to a 7.3% drop in emissions from the power and heat production sector (down to 913 MtCO2eq). Verified emissions from the industrial sector remained stable (-0.1%) at 769 MtCO2eq, while those from aviation grew by 3.9% to 67 MtCO2eq.
According to the National Energy Administration (NEA) of China, energy supply continued to improve in the first nine months of 2019: domestic crude oil production increased by 1.2%, compared to the same period of 2018, to 143 Mt, reversing three consecutive years of decline. Domestic gas production also grew by 9.5% year-on-year to nearly 128 bcm. Coal production should continue to increase, as 40 new large and medium-sized coal mines with a cumulated capacity of 196 Mt were approved during the 9-month period.
Between January and June 2019, the US net gas sales abroad reached 4.1 bcf/d (116 mcm/d) on average, a level two times superior to the net exports in 2018. According to the EIA, the expansion of US gas trade surplus is mostly due to the increase of LNG exports.