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Average CO2 emission factor

Strong improvement in the global carbon factor in 2020 (-0.9% vs. -0.3%/year over 2010-2019)

Average CO2 emission factor

Strong improvement in the global carbon factor in 2020 (-0.9% vs. -0.3%/year over 2010-2019)

Breakdown by country (tCO2/toe)

Trend over 1990 - 2020 - tCO2/toe



South Africa’s carbon factor remains much above the global average

Strong improvement in the global carbon factor in 2020 (-0.9% vs. -0.3%/year over 2010-2019)

In 2020, the global carbon factor (CO2 emissions per toe of energy consumed) decreased by 0.9%, a much faster pace than over the 2010-2019 period (-0.3%/year). This improvement is due to the significant drop in oil consumption – in a context of pandemic-related transport restrictions and lockdown measures – and to an acceleration in the decarbonation of power generation (fall in power generation from flexible power plants, generally thermal ones, due to the drop in electricity consumption). Indeed, the lower electricity consumption and the continued rise in renewable power generation contributed to reduce thermal power generation (especially from coal), and fossil fuel consumption in the power sector. The carbon factor fell in the EU (-4.4%, with significant drops in Spain and Germany), the USA (-3.4%), Canada (-9.5%), Latin America and Africa (-4.4% each, with a significant improvement in South Africa, where thermal power generation fell). Improvement was slower in Asia (-0.6%), as the carbon factor only dipped by 0.5% in China (coal consumption still rising); it contracted in India (lower coal-fired generation) and South Korea (increased nuclear generation) but slightly grew in Japan and Indonesia. It also declined in Russia and Australia over reduced coal consumption, and in the Middle East (lower oil consumption).

Global Energy Trends - 2021 Edition

Consolidated 2020 energy and emissions statistics with 2021 estimates, including COVID-19 impact and structural changes.

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Global Energy & CO2 Data

Need more data? All the information presented in this energy data tool are extracted from Global Energy & CO2 Data service, the most comprehensive and up-to-date database on all CO2 emissions from fuel combustion by sector and sources, industrial process, waste, but also on CH4, N2O, PFC, SF6 emissions. Detailed indicators are available by country and by sector.

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According to the Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC), 6.1 GW of offshore wind capacity was installed in 2020 (down from 6.2 GW in 2019), including 3 GW in China, 1.5 GW in the Netherlands, and 0.7 GW in Belgium. More than 35 GW of offshore wind capacity is currently operational, with 29% of the total in the UK, 28% in China and 22% in Germany.



South Africa’s total greenhouse gas emissions excluding FOLU (forestry and other land use) increased by 14% between 2000 and 2017 to 513 MtCO2eq, according to the country’s 7th National Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventory Report. The energy sector is the largest contributor to emissions excluding FOLU (80%) and is responsible for 97% of the increase over 2000-2017. Energy industries were responsible for 61% of emissions from the energy sector in 2017. This was followed by transport (13%), other sectors (9%) and manufacturing industries and construction (7%).



According to the Turkish Electricity Transmission Corporation (TEIAŞ), installed wind capacity in Turkey reached the 10 GW threshold in early August 2021. Most of the capacity is located in the Izmir province (1.7 GW), followed by Balıkesir (1,300 MW), Çanakkale (850 MW), Manisa (750 MW), and Istanbul (420 MW). Wind represented 10% of the installed capacity connected to the transmission network (10,010 MW out of 98,800 MW) and over half (51.9 GW) was considered "clean" electricity. In the first half of 2021, wind power accounted for around 9% of the power generation, replacing nearly US$1bn in gas imports.



According to preliminary statistics from the Indian Ministry of Coal, India’s production of non-coking coal and lignite declined by 1.7% in the fiscal year 2020-21 to 708 Mt, including 671 Mt of non-coking coal (-1%) and 37 Mt of lignite (-12%). Of the total output of non-coking coal, 96% was produced the public sector, including 83% by Coal India Limited (CIL). Most of the lignite was extracted by NLC India Limited (53%). The country imported 164 Mt of non-coking coal in 2020-21 (-17%), mainly from Indonesia (56%), South Africa (19%) and Australia (11%).