South Africa’s carbon factor remains much above the global average
Strong improvement in the global carbon factor in 2020 (-0.9% vs. -0.3%/year over 2010-2019)
In 2020, the global carbon factor (CO2 emissions per toe of energy consumed) decreased by 0.9%, a much faster pace than over the 2010-2019 period (-0.3%/year). This improvement is due to the significant drop in oil consumption – in a context of pandemic-related transport restrictions and lockdown measures – and to an acceleration in the decarbonation of power generation (fall in power generation from flexible power plants, generally thermal ones, due to the drop in electricity consumption). Indeed, the lower electricity consumption and the continued rise in renewable power generation contributed to reduce thermal power generation (especially from coal), and fossil fuel consumption in the power sector. The carbon factor fell in the EU (-4.4%, with significant drops in Spain and Germany), the USA (-3.4%), Canada (-9.5%), Latin America and Africa (-4.4% each, with a significant improvement in South Africa, where thermal power generation fell). Improvement was slower in Asia (-0.6%), as the carbon factor only dipped by 0.5% in China (coal consumption still rising); it contracted in India (lower coal-fired generation) and South Korea (increased nuclear generation) but slightly grew in Japan and Indonesia. It also declined in Russia and Australia over reduced coal consumption, and in the Middle East (lower oil consumption).
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Iran exported 17 bcm of natural gas in the past year (March 2021-March 2022), according to the National Iranian Gas Company (NIGC), including 7.3 bcm to Iraq (43%) and 3.3 bcm to Turkey (19%). Around 98% of cities and 85% of villages in the country are connected to the natural gas transmission network. In 2020, Iran exported 11.3 bcm of natural gas and Iraq sourced 100% of its natural gas imports from Iran, totalling 5.7 bcm in 2020.
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions under the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) rose by 7.3% in 2021, due to higher emissions from the power sector, industry and aviation; however, they remain below their 2019 levels.
India's crude oil production declined by 2.7% in the fiscal year 2021-2022 (April 2021 to March 2022) to 29.7 Mt, in line with the recent decrease in oil production due to ageing fields. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) produced 19.45 Mt of crude oil (-3.6%). With the economic recovery, refineries processed 242 Mt of crude oil in the fiscal year 2021-2022 (+9%), producing 254 Mt of petroleum products (+8.9%). In addition, natural gas output rose by 18.7% to 34 bcm in the fiscal year 2021-2022.
US greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (including LULUCF) declined by 11% in 2020 to 5,222 MtCO2eq, i.e., 21% below 2005 levels, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency. This was driven by an 11% decrease in CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion, primarily due to a 13% drop in transportation emissions driven by lower demand owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, power sector emissions also fell by 10%, reflecting both a slight decline in demand from the COVID-19 pandemic and a continued shift from coal to natural gas and renewables. In 2020, CO2 accounted for 79% of total emissions, followed by methane (11%), nitrous oxide (7%) and fluorinated gases (3%). Transport is the largest emitter sector (27%), followed by electricity (25%), industry (24%), commercial and residential (13%) and agriculture (11%).