Decline of oil product consumption in Latin America for the fifth year in a row over reduced production and sanctions in Venezuela.
The global oil product consumption grew in 2019 at a much slower rate than over the 2000-2018 period (+0.3% vs. +1%/year), due to a slowdown in industrial activity and to warmer than average winter temperatures in the northern hemisphere. Oil product consumption decreased by 0.5% in the USA, the largest consumer worldwide, due to a lower demand from industry and the petrochemical sector (delays in projects), and to diminishing car sales to a lesser extent. It also declined in Japan (-4.1% over reduced needs for heating), in Latin America (-12% in Venezuela over US sanctions, -4.5% in Mexico and -1.3% in Brazil), as well as in the Middle East and Africa, due to rising fuel prices.
Oil products consumption rose in Asia, led by China (+6.6% with new refinery commissioning), Indonesia (+6.6%) and India (+2.9%), and to a lesser extent in the CIS (+1.2%) and the EU (+0.7%), including +2.1% in Germany, where demand from industry and transport increased.
According to the European Union (EU) Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER), the amount of cross-border capacity available for trade among Member States remains insufficient to meet the minimum EU target of 70% by 2020. Cross-zonal capacity increased by 3% in 2019 compared to 2018 due to border-specific improvements (Poland-Czech Republic/Germany/Slovakia, Austrian borders, Greece-Italy, Bulgaria-Romania and Germany-Denmark). Moderate decreases, compared to 2018, were observed at the Swiss and Norwegian borders (-6%) and at a smaller scale in Italy North and Nordic regions (-2%). In addition, several Member States continue to use national capacity mechanisms, even if they do not always face an adequacy problem.
According to the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre, global CO2 emissions from energy combustion increased by 0.9% to 38 GtCO2 in 2019, driven by China (+3.4%, accounting for 30% of global emissions) and India (+1.6%, 7% of global emissions). Meanwhile, Japan (3% of global emissions) reduced its energy-related CO2 emissions by 2.1%, the United States (13% of total emissions) by 2.6% and Russia (5% of total emissions) by 0.8%.
According to the European Commission, primary energy consumption declined by 0.7% in 2018 (-0.1% only for final energy consumption), which is insufficient to meet the 2020 targets. The highest annual reductions in primary energy consumption were posted in Belgium, Austria and Greece, whereas the largest increases were observed in Estonia, Latvia and Luxembourg. Between 2005 and 2018, primary energy consumption decreased in all Member States except Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia and Poland. Primary energy intensity fell in all Member States between 2005 and 2018; however, it grew in Denmark, Estonia and Luxemburg in recent years (between 2015 and 2018).
According to the Swiss government, final energy consumption in Switzerland slightly increased in 2019 (+0.3%) due to cooler temperatures, economic growth (+0.9%), demographic growth (+0.7%) and increasing fleet of motor vehicles (+0.8%). This rising trend was offset by continued energy efficiency and substitution effects.