Fall in coal production in the United States in 2020
Global coal production fell by 4.5% in 2020, despite a rising production in China and India
After three years of growth, global coal production decreased again in 2020, as slowing electricity consumption reduced coal demand. Coal production grew by 1.4% in China, the largest coal producer (49% of the global output), for the fourth year in a row. It also increased slightly in India despite a lower consumption but contracted strongly in Indonesia over lower domestic demand and tight import restrictions in China, returning to its 2018 level. In other large coal producing countries, production continued to follow a downward trend, that was aggravated by the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. It collapsed in the United States (-24%) in a context of lower demand from the power sector and fell in Russia (-9%) and Australia (-6%). In the EU, coal production contracted by more than 16%, decreasing in all countries, especially in Germany and Poland, due to a lower electricity demand and rising CO2 prices. It also fell in Turkey, in South Africa and collapsed in Colombia (-23%, in a context of national lockdown followed by a 3-month strike at a major mine).
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Iran exported 17 bcm of natural gas in the past year (March 2021-March 2022), according to the National Iranian Gas Company (NIGC), including 7.3 bcm to Iraq (43%) and 3.3 bcm to Turkey (19%). Around 98% of cities and 85% of villages in the country are connected to the natural gas transmission network. In 2020, Iran exported 11.3 bcm of natural gas and Iraq sourced 100% of its natural gas imports from Iran, totalling 5.7 bcm in 2020.
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions under the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) rose by 7.3% in 2021, due to higher emissions from the power sector, industry and aviation; however, they remain below their 2019 levels.
India's crude oil production declined by 2.7% in the fiscal year 2021-2022 (April 2021 to March 2022) to 29.7 Mt, in line with the recent decrease in oil production due to ageing fields. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) produced 19.45 Mt of crude oil (-3.6%). With the economic recovery, refineries processed 242 Mt of crude oil in the fiscal year 2021-2022 (+9%), producing 254 Mt of petroleum products (+8.9%). In addition, natural gas output rose by 18.7% to 34 bcm in the fiscal year 2021-2022.
US greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (including LULUCF) declined by 11% in 2020 to 5,222 MtCO2eq, i.e., 21% below 2005 levels, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency. This was driven by an 11% decrease in CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion, primarily due to a 13% drop in transportation emissions driven by lower demand owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, power sector emissions also fell by 10%, reflecting both a slight decline in demand from the COVID-19 pandemic and a continued shift from coal to natural gas and renewables. In 2020, CO2 accounted for 79% of total emissions, followed by methane (11%), nitrous oxide (7%) and fluorinated gases (3%). Transport is the largest emitter sector (27%), followed by electricity (25%), industry (24%), commercial and residential (13%) and agriculture (11%).