Share of China in the global energy consumption in 2020
Global energy consumption fell in 2020 (-4%), due to lockdown measures and transport restrictions
Global energy consumption growth declined by 4% in 2020, in a context of global pandemic, contrasting with an average 2%/year over the 2000-2018 period and a 0.8% slowdown in 2019. Energy consumption fell in most countries, except in China, the largest energy consumer (24% of the global energy consumption in 2020) which rapidly recovered from the COVID-19 crisis. China’s energy consumption rose by 2.2%, a much slower pace than in previous years (+4%/year over the 2008-2018 period and +3.4% in 2019). Lockdown measures and reduced economic activity had a severe impact on energy consumption in 2020. It decreased significantly (-7.6%) in the United States, by around 7% in the EU (strong drops in the largest markets such as Spain, France, Italy, and Germany), Japan, and Canada, and by 4.8% in Russia. The decline was slighter (around -3%) in India, South Korea, or Saudi Arabia, and even lower (around -2%) in Australia and Brazil. Energy consumption also contracted in Africa and in the Middle East (especially in Saudi Arabia).
Iran exported 17 bcm of natural gas in the past year (March 2021-March 2022), according to the National Iranian Gas Company (NIGC), including 7.3 bcm to Iraq (43%) and 3.3 bcm to Turkey (19%). Around 98% of cities and 85% of villages in the country are connected to the natural gas transmission network. In 2020, Iran exported 11.3 bcm of natural gas and Iraq sourced 100% of its natural gas imports from Iran, totalling 5.7 bcm in 2020.
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions under the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) rose by 7.3% in 2021, due to higher emissions from the power sector, industry and aviation; however, they remain below their 2019 levels.
India's crude oil production declined by 2.7% in the fiscal year 2021-2022 (April 2021 to March 2022) to 29.7 Mt, in line with the recent decrease in oil production due to ageing fields. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) produced 19.45 Mt of crude oil (-3.6%). With the economic recovery, refineries processed 242 Mt of crude oil in the fiscal year 2021-2022 (+9%), producing 254 Mt of petroleum products (+8.9%). In addition, natural gas output rose by 18.7% to 34 bcm in the fiscal year 2021-2022.
US greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (including LULUCF) declined by 11% in 2020 to 5,222 MtCO2eq, i.e., 21% below 2005 levels, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency. This was driven by an 11% decrease in CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion, primarily due to a 13% drop in transportation emissions driven by lower demand owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, power sector emissions also fell by 10%, reflecting both a slight decline in demand from the COVID-19 pandemic and a continued shift from coal to natural gas and renewables. In 2020, CO2 accounted for 79% of total emissions, followed by methane (11%), nitrous oxide (7%) and fluorinated gases (3%). Transport is the largest emitter sector (27%), followed by electricity (25%), industry (24%), commercial and residential (13%) and agriculture (11%).