Strong drop in Russia’s crude oil production in 2020
Global crude oil production fell (-6.1%), driven down by the COVID-19 pandemic.
International oil prices fell by more than a third in 2020 (-35% for the Brent, at US$42/bbl) due to a large drop in global demand caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown measures. Consequently, the OPEC+ agreed in April 2020 to cut their overall crude oil production by 9.7 mb/d over the 1 May 2020 - 30 June 2020 period (extended to end-July 2020), in bid to reduce the global oversupply and to firm up depressed oil prices. Restrictions were relaxed as of August 2020 (global cut limited to 7.7 mb/d). In 2020, the US crude oil production (17% of global output in 2020) contracted by 3.4%, widening again the gap with Saudi Arabia as the largest crude oil producer, with the US producing 42% more oil than Saudi Arabia in 2020. Overall, oil production fell by -8.8% in the Middle East, including -7% in Saudi Arabia, by 8.6% in Russia, and by 14% in Nigeria. It declined by 4.5% in Canada but grew by 1.6% in China and by 7.1% in Brazil (surging pre-salt production).
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According to Ireland's Environmental Protection Agency, the country's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions decreased by 3.6% in 2020 to 58 MtCO2eq. The decrease in emissions is reflected in most sectors with the exception of increases in residential, agriculture and public services. In the energy sector, GHG emissions fell by 7.9% (-0.74 MtCO2eq), as peat-fired power generation halved and renewable power generation increased noticeably (+15% from wind), covering 42% of the Irish power mix. Residential emissions grew by 9% (+0.59 MtCO2eq), as a result of colder temperatures, historic low oil prices (impacting heating choices), and home working. Emissions from transports fell by nearly 16% (-1.9 MtCO2eq) due to transport restrictions. Overall, Ireland's GHG emissions are still only 7% below 2005 level. The country committed under an EU agreement known as the Effort Sharing Decision to cut GHG emissions by 20% between 2005 and 2020.
According to the Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC), 6.1 GW of offshore wind capacity was installed in 2020 (down from 6.2 GW in 2019), including 3 GW in China, 1.5 GW in the Netherlands, and 0.7 GW in Belgium. More than 35 GW of offshore wind capacity is currently operational, with 29% of the total in the UK, 28% in China and 22% in Germany.
South Africa’s total greenhouse gas emissions excluding FOLU (forestry and other land use) increased by 14% between 2000 and 2017 to 513 MtCO2eq, according to the country’s 7th National Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventory Report. The energy sector is the largest contributor to emissions excluding FOLU (80%) and is responsible for 97% of the increase over 2000-2017. Energy industries were responsible for 61% of emissions from the energy sector in 2017. This was followed by transport (13%), other sectors (9%) and manufacturing industries and construction (7%).
According to the Turkish Electricity Transmission Corporation (TEIAŞ), installed wind capacity in Turkey reached the 10 GW threshold in early August 2021. Most of the capacity is located in the Izmir province (1.7 GW), followed by Balıkesir (1,300 MW), Çanakkale (850 MW), Manisa (750 MW), and Istanbul (420 MW). Wind represented 10% of the installed capacity connected to the transmission network (10,010 MW out of 98,800 MW) and over half (51.9 GW) was considered "clean" electricity. In the first half of 2021, wind power accounted for around 9% of the power generation, replacing nearly US$1bn in gas imports.