Strong fall in CO2 emissions in the United States in 2020
2020 CO2 emissions fell significantly (-4.9%) below their 2012 level
In 2020, the COVID-19 outbreak had a tremendous impact on CO2 emissions (-4.9%), especially in the first half of the year, when widespread lockdown measures, transport restrictions and the economic slowdown significantly reduced oil consumption in the transport sector. CO2 emissions also contracted in the power sector, owing to a lower electricity demand and to the continued decline in the carbon factor (CO2 emissions per kWh produced), mainly due to fuel switching from coal to gas and the rising share of renewables in the global power mix. Most of the reduction in emissions occurred in the USA (-11%) and Europe (-11%, with significant cuts in Germany, Spain, and the UK), due to a much lower coal-fired power generation and higher CO2 prices in 2020. CO2 emissions also fell in India (-5.5%, due to the lower coal-fired power generation and oil product consumption), Russia and Canada (reduced power generation and strong drop in oil production and consumption), in Japan and South Korea (rising share of renewables in the power mix). They also contracted in Indonesia, in Latin America (especially in Mexico, Brazil and Argentina), in Africa (strong decline in South Africa) and in the Middle East (notably in Saudi Arabia, where oil consumption decreased significantly). On the contrary, CO2 emissions rose for the fourth year in a row in China (+1.6%), due to a rapidly recovering energy demand and a steady coal-fired power generation, despite a new surge in renewable power generation. China accounted for 31% of global CO2 emissions in 2020.
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According to the Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC), 6.1 GW of offshore wind capacity was installed in 2020 (down from 6.2 GW in 2019), including 3 GW in China, 1.5 GW in the Netherlands, and 0.7 GW in Belgium. More than 35 GW of offshore wind capacity is currently operational, with 29% of the total in the UK, 28% in China and 22% in Germany.
South Africa’s total greenhouse gas emissions excluding FOLU (forestry and other land use) increased by 14% between 2000 and 2017 to 513 MtCO2eq, according to the country’s 7th National Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventory Report. The energy sector is the largest contributor to emissions excluding FOLU (80%) and is responsible for 97% of the increase over 2000-2017. Energy industries were responsible for 61% of emissions from the energy sector in 2017. This was followed by transport (13%), other sectors (9%) and manufacturing industries and construction (7%).
According to the Turkish Electricity Transmission Corporation (TEIAŞ), installed wind capacity in Turkey reached the 10 GW threshold in early August 2021. Most of the capacity is located in the Izmir province (1.7 GW), followed by Balıkesir (1,300 MW), Çanakkale (850 MW), Manisa (750 MW), and Istanbul (420 MW). Wind represented 10% of the installed capacity connected to the transmission network (10,010 MW out of 98,800 MW) and over half (51.9 GW) was considered "clean" electricity. In the first half of 2021, wind power accounted for around 9% of the power generation, replacing nearly US$1bn in gas imports.
According to preliminary statistics from the Indian Ministry of Coal, India’s production of non-coking coal and lignite declined by 1.7% in the fiscal year 2020-21 to 708 Mt, including 671 Mt of non-coking coal (-1%) and 37 Mt of lignite (-12%). Of the total output of non-coking coal, 96% was produced the public sector, including 83% by Coal India Limited (CIL). Most of the lignite was extracted by NLC India Limited (53%). The country imported 164 Mt of non-coking coal in 2020-21 (-17%), mainly from Indonesia (56%), South Africa (19%) and Australia (11%).