Strong fall in CO2 emissions in the United States in 2020
2020 CO2 emissions fell significantly (-4.9%) below their 2012 level
In 2020, the COVID-19 outbreak had a tremendous impact on CO2 emissions (-4.9%), especially in the first half of the year, when widespread lockdown measures, transport restrictions and the economic slowdown significantly reduced oil consumption in the transport sector. CO2 emissions also contracted in the power sector, owing to a lower electricity demand and to the continued decline in the carbon factor (CO2 emissions per kWh produced), mainly due to fuel switching from coal to gas and the rising share of renewables in the global power mix. Most of the reduction in emissions occurred in the USA (-11%) and Europe (-11%, with significant cuts in Germany, Spain, and the UK), due to a much lower coal-fired power generation and higher CO2 prices in 2020. CO2 emissions also fell in India (-5.5%, due to the lower coal-fired power generation and oil product consumption), Russia and Canada (reduced power generation and strong drop in oil production and consumption), in Japan and South Korea (rising share of renewables in the power mix). They also contracted in Indonesia, in Latin America (especially in Mexico, Brazil and Argentina), in Africa (strong decline in South Africa) and in the Middle East (notably in Saudi Arabia, where oil consumption decreased significantly). On the contrary, CO2 emissions rose for the fourth year in a row in China (+1.6%), due to a rapidly recovering energy demand and a steady coal-fired power generation, despite a new surge in renewable power generation. China accounted for 31% of global CO2 emissions in 2020.
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Iran exported 17 bcm of natural gas in the past year (March 2021-March 2022), according to the National Iranian Gas Company (NIGC), including 7.3 bcm to Iraq (43%) and 3.3 bcm to Turkey (19%). Around 98% of cities and 85% of villages in the country are connected to the natural gas transmission network. In 2020, Iran exported 11.3 bcm of natural gas and Iraq sourced 100% of its natural gas imports from Iran, totalling 5.7 bcm in 2020.
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions under the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) rose by 7.3% in 2021, due to higher emissions from the power sector, industry and aviation; however, they remain below their 2019 levels.
India's crude oil production declined by 2.7% in the fiscal year 2021-2022 (April 2021 to March 2022) to 29.7 Mt, in line with the recent decrease in oil production due to ageing fields. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) produced 19.45 Mt of crude oil (-3.6%). With the economic recovery, refineries processed 242 Mt of crude oil in the fiscal year 2021-2022 (+9%), producing 254 Mt of petroleum products (+8.9%). In addition, natural gas output rose by 18.7% to 34 bcm in the fiscal year 2021-2022.
US greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (including LULUCF) declined by 11% in 2020 to 5,222 MtCO2eq, i.e., 21% below 2005 levels, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency. This was driven by an 11% decrease in CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion, primarily due to a 13% drop in transportation emissions driven by lower demand owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, power sector emissions also fell by 10%, reflecting both a slight decline in demand from the COVID-19 pandemic and a continued shift from coal to natural gas and renewables. In 2020, CO2 accounted for 79% of total emissions, followed by methane (11%), nitrous oxide (7%) and fluorinated gases (3%). Transport is the largest emitter sector (27%), followed by electricity (25%), industry (24%), commercial and residential (13%) and agriculture (11%).