Surge in Turkey's coal consumption .
The 2018 rise in coal consumption was driven by India and China, the two largest coal-consuming economies, with Turkey and Russia also contributing to the rising demand.
China, responsible for nearly half of global coal consumption, has seen its second consecutive annual increase, driven mainly by power generation and some industrial sectors such as steel, chemicals and cement. Coal consumption increased again in 2018, against a slowdown in economic growth and gas supply worries lowering emphasis on a shift from coal to gas space heating. This goes against previous efforts to “green” the economy whilst maintaining prosperity.
Consistent increases in economic growth and thus domestic demand for coal in India, primarily from industry and power generation, are outstripping the build out of renewables and cleaner, more efficient technologies.
The largest decrease in coal consumption comes from the United States (-4%), reaching its lowest level in 40 years as a result of the retirement of coal-fired power plants (15 GW of capacity closed in 2018), stronger emissions standards and the availability of cheaper natural gas for electricity generation.
Coal consumption fell for the sixth year in a row in Europe, due to climate policies, increased competition from renewables and gas, and higher CO2 emissions costs (three-fold increase in 2018) in the European Union; on the contrary, coal demand rose by 11% in Turkey.
According to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) latest 3D seismic mapping, the Alaska North Slope contains 1,523 bcm (53,800 bcf) of technically recoverable natural gas hydrate (methane ice) resources stored within gas hydrate formations. The resources are located on a depth range of 200-1,200 m. Ressources are assumed to be tackled by using conventional technology. As there are no exploration fields on gas hydrate formation, its commercial viability is unknown.
According to the Australian government, Australia’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reached 538.9 MtCO2eq (+0.6%) for the year to March 2019. The growth is largely due to a 19% increase in LNG exports and to a higher steel and aluminum production. Without the impact of LNG production on emissions (+4.7 MtCO2eq), domestic GHG emissions would have fallen, as the growth in wind and solar power generation contributed to a 2.1% drop in GHG emissions from the power sector. GHG emissions in Australia, which pledged to reduce its emissions by at least 26% from 2005 levels by 2030 under the Paris Climate Accord, stood 11.7% below their 2005 level in the year to March 2019.
According to the Chinese National Energy Administration (NEA), a total of 11.4 GW of new solar PV capacities was connected to the Chinese grid in the first half of 2019, i.e. less than half of the capacity added in the same period in 2018 (24 GW). The new capacity raised the country's total solar PV capacity to 186 GW (+20% increase compared to the first half of 2018). Centralised PV power plants capacity rose by 6.8 GW (+16%) to 130 GW, while distributed capacity surged by nearly 4.6 GW (+31%) to 55 GW.
According to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), US LNG exports have been rising steadily since 2017, to 4.7 bcf/d (133 mcm/d) in May 2019. The recent LNG exports level makes the United States the third-largest LNG exporter in the first five months of the year with an average of 4.2 bcf/d (119 mcm/d), over the January-May 2019 period. The United States expects to remain the third-largest LNG exporter in the world in 2019-2020, behind Australia and Qatar.