Strong decline in coal consumption in the EU, as in 2019
New decline in global coal consumption (-4.4%) despite growth in China (+0.6%)
China, which accounts for 52% of global coal consumption, was the sole large consumer posting an increase in coal demand (+0.6%). The country rapidly recovered from the COVID-19 crisis – its industrial production remained stable, supporting demand – and new coal-fired power plants were commissioned. Despite China’s policy to cut coal in primary consumption, coal consumption in China has not reached its peak yet. In other countries, the crisis-induced decrease in electricity consumption and the lower demand from the steel and cement sectors led to a fall in coal consumption. The crisis accelerated the downward trend in coal consumption observed in recent years, owing to public and private climate policies, competition from cheaper gas-fired and renewable power generation and coal-fired power plant shutdowns, especially in the USA (-21% after -15% in 2019) and in the EU (-19%, as in 2019). Coal consumption also declined in India, the second largest coal consumer worldwide (-3.7%), due to lockdown measures, in Russia (-11%), in Turkey, and in large Asian coal consuming countries such as Japan, Indonesia, and South Korea (over a lower electricity consumption and forced coal-fired power plant closures to reduce air pollution). In Australia and in South Africa, a surge in renewable power generation and breakdowns at coal-fired power plants contributed to cut coal consumption in 2020.
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Iran exported 17 bcm of natural gas in the past year (March 2021-March 2022), according to the National Iranian Gas Company (NIGC), including 7.3 bcm to Iraq (43%) and 3.3 bcm to Turkey (19%). Around 98% of cities and 85% of villages in the country are connected to the natural gas transmission network. In 2020, Iran exported 11.3 bcm of natural gas and Iraq sourced 100% of its natural gas imports from Iran, totalling 5.7 bcm in 2020.
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions under the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) rose by 7.3% in 2021, due to higher emissions from the power sector, industry and aviation; however, they remain below their 2019 levels.
India's crude oil production declined by 2.7% in the fiscal year 2021-2022 (April 2021 to March 2022) to 29.7 Mt, in line with the recent decrease in oil production due to ageing fields. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) produced 19.45 Mt of crude oil (-3.6%). With the economic recovery, refineries processed 242 Mt of crude oil in the fiscal year 2021-2022 (+9%), producing 254 Mt of petroleum products (+8.9%). In addition, natural gas output rose by 18.7% to 34 bcm in the fiscal year 2021-2022.
US greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (including LULUCF) declined by 11% in 2020 to 5,222 MtCO2eq, i.e., 21% below 2005 levels, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency. This was driven by an 11% decrease in CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion, primarily due to a 13% drop in transportation emissions driven by lower demand owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, power sector emissions also fell by 10%, reflecting both a slight decline in demand from the COVID-19 pandemic and a continued shift from coal to natural gas and renewables. In 2020, CO2 accounted for 79% of total emissions, followed by methane (11%), nitrous oxide (7%) and fluorinated gases (3%). Transport is the largest emitter sector (27%), followed by electricity (25%), industry (24%), commercial and residential (13%) and agriculture (11%).