Surge in Turkey's coal consumption .
The 2018 rise in coal consumption was driven by India and China, the two largest coal-consuming economies, with Turkey and Russia also contributing to the rising demand.
China, responsible for nearly half of global coal consumption, has seen its second consecutive annual increase, driven mainly by power generation and some industrial sectors such as steel, chemicals and cement. Coal consumption increased again in 2018, against a slowdown in economic growth and gas supply worries lowering emphasis on a shift from coal to gas space heating. This goes against previous efforts to “green” the economy whilst maintaining prosperity.
Consistent increases in economic growth and thus domestic demand for coal in India, primarily from industry and power generation, are outstripping the build out of renewables and cleaner, more efficient technologies.
The largest decrease in coal consumption comes from the United States (-4%), reaching its lowest level in 40 years as a result of the retirement of coal-fired power plants (15 GW of capacity closed in 2018), stronger emissions standards and the availability of cheaper natural gas for electricity generation.
Coal consumption fell for the sixth year in a row in Europe, due to climate policies, increased competition from renewables and gas, and higher CO2 emissions costs (three-fold increase in 2018) in the European Union; on the contrary, coal demand rose by 11% in Turkey.
According to the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) of India, renewable power capacity in India has exceeded the 80 GW mark, with 80,460 MW of renewable capacity operational as of 30 June 2019, including 29,550 MW of solar capacity and 36,370 MW of wind power capacity. In addition, power purchase agreements (PPAs) have already been signed for an additional 9.2 GW of solar power projects.
According to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) released by the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), energy-related CO2 emissions in the United States are expected to reverse their 2018 trend (+3%) and to decline by 2.2% in 2019. Energy-related CO2 emissions would decrease by 114 Mt in 2019 and most of the drop would come from coal-related emissions (-13%, i.e. -168 Mt); this would be the largest decline in CO2 emissions from coal since 2015. Coal-related CO2 emissions are expected to decline by a further 3.6% in 2020.
According to the latest carbon inventory submitted by the Chinese Ministry of Environment to the United Nations, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China rose by more than 53% between 2005 and 2014, reaching 12.3 GtCO2eq in 2014. These estimates don't take LULUCF (land use, land use change and forestry) into account: according to the Ministry of Environment, total GHG emissions including LULUCF still would have risen by 17% between 2010 and 2014 to 11.2 GtCO2eq.
According to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), the installed capacity of utility-scale (above 1 MW) battery energy storage systems (BESS) in the United States could reach 2.5 GW by 2023.