Surge in Turkey's coal consumption .
The 2018 rise in coal consumption was driven by India and China, the two largest coal-consuming economies, with Turkey and Russia also contributing to the rising demand.
China, responsible for nearly half of global coal consumption, has seen its second consecutive annual increase, driven mainly by power generation and some industrial sectors such as steel, chemicals and cement. Coal consumption increased again in 2018, against a slowdown in economic growth and gas supply worries lowering emphasis on a shift from coal to gas space heating. This goes against previous efforts to “green” the economy whilst maintaining prosperity.
Consistent increases in economic growth and thus domestic demand for coal in India, primarily from industry and power generation, are outstripping the build out of renewables and cleaner, more efficient technologies.
The largest decrease in coal consumption comes from the United States (-4%), reaching its lowest level in 40 years as a result of the retirement of coal-fired power plants (15 GW of capacity closed in 2018), stronger emissions standards and the availability of cheaper natural gas for electricity generation.
Coal consumption fell for the sixth year in a row in Europe, due to climate policies, increased competition from renewables and gas, and higher CO2 emissions costs (three-fold increase in 2018) in the European Union; on the contrary, coal demand rose by 11% in Turkey.
According to the Spanish power transmission system operator Red Eléctrica de España (REE), Spain added nearly 6.5 GW of new renewable power capacity in 2019 (6,456 MW), corresponding to a 13% increase in the renewable capacity. During 2019, 93 new solar PV power plants added 3,975 MW, while 86 new wind projects added 2,319 MW and 10 other renewable projects added 162 MW. Most of the new renewable capacity came from auctions held in 2017 (5,689 MW). This strong growth in the renewable capacity contributed to raise Spain's installed capacity by 5.6% at the end of 2019.
According to Eurostat, the share of renewable energy in the gross final energy consumption of the European Union (EU) rose from 17.5% in 2017 to 18% in 2018, progressing towards the target of 20% of renewable energy by 2020 and at least 32% by 2030.
According to the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP), Brazil’s oil production increased by 7.8% in 2019 to reach 1.018 Gbl (2.789 mb/d), including 634 mbl in pre-salt areas. Total gas production also increased significantly during 2019 (+9.5%).
According to preliminary data from the National Bureau of Statistics, China’s fossil fuel production continued to rise in 2019. China’s raw coal production increased by 4.2% in 2019, in line with the continuing of the supply-side structural reform. Coal imports also rose by 6.3%, benefiting from declining prices. The decline in crude oil production since 2015 reversed in 2019, as the major domestic oil fields had a stable production growth trend and crude oil production rose by 0.8%. In addition, crude oil imports rose by 9.5% and inputs to Chinese refineries rose by 7.6%. China's gas production soared by 9.8% in 2019, while imports rose by 6.9%. Finally, power generation increased by 3.5%.