Surge in Turkey's coal consumption .
The 2018 rise in coal consumption was driven by India and China, the two largest coal-consuming economies, with Turkey and Russia also contributing to the rising demand.
China, responsible for nearly half of global coal consumption, has seen its second consecutive annual increase, driven mainly by power generation and some industrial sectors such as steel, chemicals and cement. Coal consumption increased again in 2018, against a slowdown in economic growth and gas supply worries lowering emphasis on a shift from coal to gas space heating. This goes against previous efforts to “green” the economy whilst maintaining prosperity.
Consistent increases in economic growth and thus domestic demand for coal in India, primarily from industry and power generation, are outstripping the build out of renewables and cleaner, more efficient technologies.
The largest decrease in coal consumption comes from the United States (-4%), reaching its lowest level in 40 years as a result of the retirement of coal-fired power plants (15 GW of capacity closed in 2018), stronger emissions standards and the availability of cheaper natural gas for electricity generation.
Coal consumption fell for the sixth year in a row in Europe, due to climate policies, increased competition from renewables and gas, and higher CO2 emissions costs (three-fold increase in 2018) in the European Union; on the contrary, coal demand rose by 11% in Turkey.
According to the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA), the installed wind power capacity in the United States has reached 100 GW in the third quarter of 2019 (from over 94 GW at the end of 2018), enough to supply power to 32 million US households. Wind installations accelerated in the third quarter of 2019, with 8 new large power projects totalling 1.9 GW commissioned.
According to the annual report on the functioning of the European carbon market, greenhouse gras (GHG) emissions from installations covered by the EU ETS decreased by 4.1% (around 73 MtCO2eq) to 1,682 MtCO2eq in 2018, thanks to a 7.3% drop in emissions from the power and heat production sector (down to 913 MtCO2eq). Verified emissions from the industrial sector remained stable (-0.1%) at 769 MtCO2eq, while those from aviation grew by 3.9% to 67 MtCO2eq.
According to the National Energy Administration (NEA) of China, energy supply continued to improve in the first nine months of 2019: domestic crude oil production increased by 1.2%, compared to the same period of 2018, to 143 Mt, reversing three consecutive years of decline. Domestic gas production also grew by 9.5% year-on-year to nearly 128 bcm. Coal production should continue to increase, as 40 new large and medium-sized coal mines with a cumulated capacity of 196 Mt were approved during the 9-month period.
Between January and June 2019, the US net gas sales abroad reached 4.1 bcf/d (116 mcm/d) on average, a level two times superior to the net exports in 2018. According to the EIA, the expansion of US gas trade surplus is mostly due to the increase of LNG exports.