Portugal's share of renewable decline in 2017 (low hydro).
The share of renewable energy sources (RES, including hydropower) within the global power generation mix, which has been rising quickly since the end of the 2000’s, grew by nearly 1 percentage point in 2017, to almost 25%. Wind and solar generation has gained momentum, encouraged by ambitious climate policies in the European Union, the United States, China, India, Japan and Australia, and by the dramatic fall in solar and wind development costs over recent years, enabling developing countries to expand their renewable capacities. Solar was responsible of 20% of the additional power generation in 2017 and wind 30%. Renewables now cover 1/3 of the power mix in Europe, 1/4 in China and 1/6 in the United States, India and Japan.
In the European Union, the share of renewables remained stable in 2017, as the strong increase in renewable generation in Germany and the UK was offset by adverse hydraulic conditions in southern Europe (France, Italy, Spain).
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According to Eurostat, residential energy prices continued to increase between the second half of 2017 and the second half of 2018, with electricity prices rising by 3.5% to an average of €21.1c/kWh and rising by 5.7% for gas to an average of €6.7c/kWh.
The highest increase in residential electricity prices occurred in Cyprus (+20%), Spain (+14%), the Netherlands (+9.7%), the United Kingdom (+8.6%), Ireland (+7.8%) and Estonia (+7.5%), while prices decreased in only four countries: Latvia (-4.5%), Poland (-2.5%), Germany (-1.6%) and Lithuania (-0.9%). The highest electricity prices were recorded in Denmark (€31.2c/kWh), followed by Germany (€30c/kWh) and Belgium (€29.4c/kWh), while the lowest prices were posted in Bulgaria (€10.1c/kWh), Lithuania (€11c/kWh) and Hungary (€11.2c/kWh).
In the second half of 2018, residential gas prices ranged from below €4c/kWh in Hungary, Romania and Croatia to around €9c/kWh in the Netherlands, Spain, Denmark and Italy and more than €12c/kWh in Sweden. Prices rose by more than 17% in Ireland and by more than 16% in Bulgaria, Sweden and Romania, whereas they contracted in Croatia (-2.5%), Portugal (-1.9%), Hungary (-0.4%) and Germany (-0.2%).
On average, taxes and levies in the EU accounted for more than 1/3 (37%) of the residential electricity price in the second half of 2018, and for more than a quarter (27%) of the gas price.
According to the 2019 Hydropower Status Report released by the International Hydropower Association, around 21.8 GW of new hydropower capacities were commissioned in 2018, including nearly 2 GW of pumped-storage. Most of this new capacity was added in the East-Asia and Pacific region (nearly 9.2 GW installed, including 8.5 GW in China), followed by South America (4.9 GW, of which 3.9 GW were in Brazil), South and Central Asia (4 GW, including 2.5 GW in Pakistan), Europe (2.2 GW, half of which was in Turkey), Africa (1 GW, of which 0.7 GW in Angola) and North and Central America (0.6 GW).
At the end of 2018, global hydropower capacity stood at nearly 1,300 GW, of which over a quarter was located in China (352 GW), followed by Brazil (104 GW), the United States (103 GW) and Canada (81 GW): these four countries accounted for half of global capacities at the end of 2018 and Brazil overtook the United States as the second largest producer by capacity, after more than 3 GW were added at the 11 GW Belo Monte hydropower complex. Overall, hydropower generated 4,200 TWh in 2018.
According to Eurostat's early estimates for the year 2018, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion decreased by 2.5% in the European Union (EU) compared to 2017 levels. Although Germany reduced significantly is CO2 emissions in 2018 (-5.4%), the country remains Europe's largest carbon emitter with a 22.5% share of EU's total CO2 emissions in 2018, followed by the United Kingdom with a share of 11.4%.
With a rise of 3.5% of its energy-related emissions, Poland has become EU's third largest CO2 emitter in 2018, with a 10.3% share in total emissions, exceeding France and Italy (10% each)
Remarquable energy-related CO2 emission reductions where recorded in Portugal (-9.0%), Bulgaria (-8.1%), Ireland (-6.8%), the Netherlands (-4.6%) and Croatia (-4.3%), Greece (-.36%), France (-3.5%), Italy (-3.5%) and Spain (-3.2%
Conserversely, countries that have registered an increase in emissions were Latvia (+8.5%), Malta (+6.7%), Estonia (+4.5%), Luxembourg (+3.7%), Poland (+3.5%), Slovakia (+2.4%), Finland (+1.9%) and Lithuania (+0.6%).
According to the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics' 2019 Economic Survey, the country total electricity demand increased by 8% (to 11.2 TWh) in 2018. The country increased its renewable power output significantly, including a 43.6% growth in hydropower (to 4 TWh), while thermal power generation has been reduced by 39% and power imports decreased by 43%. Eventually, around 86% of total power was from renewables in 2018, with 46% from geothermal (with 663 MW of installed capacity), 36% from hydropower, 14% thermal and 3% from wind.
Wind and solar deployments in 2018 were also major with the commissioning of the 310 MW Lake Turkana wind power plant and the 50 MW Garissa solar park (83 MW). These deployments allowed for a 13.7% increase in total installed capacity to 2,712 MW. Wind capacity reached 367 MW and there was a 500% increase in wind power generation from 61.3 GWh in 2017 to 375.6 GWh in 2018.
The country also recorded a 3.2% decline of its oil imports, from 6.3 Mt in 2017 to 6.1 Mt in 2018.