Decline in CO2 intensity in the EU in 2019.
In 2019, the CO2 intensity fell by 2.9%, i.e. nearly twice its 2000-2018 average (-1.5%/year), thanks to steady improvements in energy intensity (around 1.5-2%/year) and in the “carbon factor” (CO2 emissions of energy consumption), especially for power generation (lower coal consumption). The CO2 intensity posted significant decreases in OECD countries (-5.5% in the EU and South Korea, -4.6% in the USA, -4.1% in Japan), well above their historical trends. In the EU, the CO2 intensity particularly decreased in large countries such as Poland (-10%), Germany (-7%) and Spain (-8%) due to decreasing CO2 emissions and slower economic growth.
The CO2 intensity also improved in Asia (-3.4%), especially in China (-3.1%, even if it remains 52% above the global average) and India (-5.1%, due to a strong economic growth coupled with declining emissions). In other large economies, the improvement was much slower (-0.6% in Australia, where CO2 emissions slightly increased, -1% in Mexico). Conversely, the CO2 intensity continued to increase in Russia, South Africa and Iran, following the rising trend in their emissions.
According to the Ministry of Finance of Japan, crude oil imports decreased by 16% to 2.5 mb/d in 2020. They came mostly from the Middle East (90%). However, petroleum products imports, which were supplied by the Middle East (48%) and Asia (29%), rose by 11%. The country imported only 74.5 Mt of LNG in 2020 (-3.7%), from Asia (23%) and the Middle East (16%). Coal imports dropped by almost 7% to 174 Mt and were supplied from Asia (17%) and Russia (13%).
According to Angola’s National Oil and Gas Agency, the country’s oil production declined by 15% to 1.3 mb/d in 2020. Gas production reached 31 bcm in 2020 (85 mcm/d). Almost 5% of the natural gas production was flared in 2020. In 2020, over 61% of the total oil production came from deep water projects (20% from ultra-deep water and 17% from shallow waters). The blocks 17 and 32, operated by Total's Angolan affiliate TEPA, accounted for 46% of the country’s oil production and for nearly 23% of the gas production, while the Chevron-operated blocks 0 and 14 accounted for 19% of the total oil production and for nearly 45% of the domestic gas production.
According to the National Energy Administration (NEA), China added nearly 72 GW of wind power capacity and 48 GW of solar capacity in 2020. The growth in wind capacity additions accelerated in 2020 - from 26 GW added in 2019 - and exceeded 2019 global wind capacity additions by 12 GW. Part of this increase was linked to an earlier announcement of China ending subsidies for new onshore wind projects as of 2021. As well, solar capacity additions recovered after two years of slowdown (+44 GW in 2018 and +30 GW in 2019). Hydropower capacity increased by 13 GW in 2020. At the end of 2020, China had 282 GW of wind capacity and 253 GW of solar capacity. The country intends to increase its installed wind and solar capacity to 1,200 GW in 2030.
According to the Ministry of Energy of Indonesia, gasoline imports are expected to increase by 54% to 140 mbl, up from 91 mbl in 2020 and exceeding the pre-pandemic import level of 119 mbl in 2019. In addition, Indonesia’s gasoline sales should reach 233 mbl in 2021 (+32% compared to the 176 mbl level of 2020), while domestic gasoline production should increase by 9% from 86 mbl in 2020 to 94 mbl in 2021, close to its 2019 levels.
Indonesia is the largest importer of gasoline in Asia, and the fourth largest worldwide after the United States, Mexico and Nigeria (2019).