Continuous growth in India's CO2 emissions.
After three years of stagnation linked to weak economic growth, reductions in energy intensity and changes in the fuel mix, global CO2 emissions grew by 2.1% in 2017. CO2 emissions remained stable in the United States, in line with its energy consumption, but the strong economic growth pushed China’s coal consumption – and CO2 emissions – upward, despite its coal-to-gas switching policy that had maintained its emissions stable since 2014.
The global economic growth helped raise energy consumption and CO2 emissions in most countries, such as India, Russia, Japan, South Korea, Canada or Iran. Adverse hydropower conditions also contributed to the increase in Brazil and Europe (significant 1.9% increase in 2017 compared with a -1.9% average decrease in the past decade; emissions grew particularly in Turkey (higher use of coal), Germany, Spain, Poland and France but fell in the United Kingdom against higher renewable generation.
Conversely, CO2 emissions decreased in Mexico and in Ukraine, where coal consumption was cut by a higher nuclear generation.
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According to the Brazilian energy regulator ANEEL, the micro and distributed mini generation capacity in Brazil has passed the 1 GW mark. Most of the distributed generation capacity is solar PV, with 82,600 small installations totalling 870 MW, followed by 86 small hydropower plants totalling 81 MW. Distributed capacities are mainly located in Minas Gerais (16,700 facilities totalling 212 MW), Rio Grande do Sul (12,000 units, cumulating 144 MW) and São Paulo (14,500 units, or 117 MW).
According to the latest Quarterly Update report on the estimates of Australia’s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Australia rose by 0.7% in 2018 to 538.2 MtCO2eq (+3.5 MtCO2eq).
Most of the 2018 increase came from stationary energy installations excluding power plants (+6%, +5.8 MtCO2eq), as LNG exports surged by 22%. The LNG sector was a large contributor to fugitive emissions, which rose by 4.9% (+2.7 MtCO2eq), due to flaring and venting of CH4 and CO2. Emissions related to industrial process also grew by 2.9% (+1 MtCO2eq), as energy-intensive steel and aluminium production rose by 11% and 6%, respectively. Transport emissions also grew by 2.8% (+2.7 MtCO2eq), spurred by a nearly 11% increase in diesel consumption.
These rising trends were partly offset by a decrease in GHG emissions recorded in the power sector (-3.5%, i.e. -6.6 MtCO2eq), as rising renewable power generation enabled to reduce coal and gas consumption. Emissions from the agriculture sector also contracted by 3.3% (-2.3 MtCO2eq), due to a decline in the beef cattle population. Overall, the Australian energy sector - including power plants and other energy facilities - accounted for 52% of total GHG emissions in 2018.
Australian GHG emissions have declined by 9.5% since 1990, thanks to the strong decrease in Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) emissions, that has partly offset the strong increase in emissions from the power sector and other energy plants.
According to the National Energy Administration (NEA) of China, 5.2 GW of new solar capacity were installed in China during the first quarter of 2019, raising the country's solar capacity to nearly 180 GW at the end of March 2019. Centralised solar power plant capacity rose by 2.4 GW to around 123 GW during the first quarter of 2019, while distributed PV capacities increased by 2.8 GW to 53 GW. Solar PV capacity significantly increased in the provinces of Zhejiang (+7.3 GW to 12.1 GW), Inner Mongolia (+4.3 GW to 9.9 GW) and Hubei (+3.8 GW to 5.5 GW).
Solar PV power generation reached 44 TWh in the first quarter of 2019 (+26% compared to the same period of 2018) and power losses continued to decline; they are mainly located in Xinjiang (12% loss rate) and Gansu (7%).
According to a recent report by the Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), total electricity consumption increased by 3.3% in South Korea to 563 TWh in 2018. The highest growth has been driven by the residential sector, which recorded a 6.3% rise to 73 TWh, mainly due to a heat wave in the summer of 2018 that spurred air conditioning use. However, households only accounted for 13% of total electricity demand, while the industrial sector representing half of the consumption (279 TWh, i.e. 2.5% more than in 2017).
Electricity consumption in South Korea has been growing steadily since 2000, doubling from 263 TWh to 563 TWh in 2018. The electricity consumption of the industrial sector rose by 86% since 2000, while demand doubled in the residential sector and grew 2.6-fold in the services sector.