Fall in Iran’s energy production in 2019.
The USA and China were the main contributors to the increase in global energy production in 2019, posting a significant growth in crude oil production and coal production, respectively.
2019 Key data for energy production are as follows:
- Crude oil: -0.7% driven by the fall in production in the Middle East (vs. +1.2%/year over 2000-2018)
- Gas: +4% propelled by the USA, Russia and Australia (vs. +2.5%/year over 2000-2018)
- Coal: 0%, with growth in China (+4%) offset by drops in India, the USA and the EU (compared with +3%/year over 2000-2018)
- Electricity: +1%, spurred by China, with declines in Europe, the USA and Japan (down from +3.1%/year over 2000-2018)
Energy production also grew in Russia and Australia (new LNG projects coming on stream), in Brazil (oil production rise), in South Africa (higher coal production) and in Turkey (surge in hydropower generation).
On the contrary, energy production continued to decline in Europe (especially coal production in Germany and Poland, and crude oil production in Norway and the Netherlands, where oil and gas resources tend to decrease). In the Middle East, US sanctions cut Iran’s energy production by nearly 15%, while Saudi Arabia reduced its crude oil production in line with the OPEC+ agreement.
According to the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre, global CO2 emissions from energy combustion increased by 0.9% to 38 GtCO2 in 2019, driven by China (+3.4%, accounting for 30% of global emissions) and India (+1.6%, 7% of global emissions). Meanwhile, Japan (3% of global emissions) reduced its energy-related CO2 emissions by 2.1%, the United States (13% of total emissions) by 2.6% and Russia (5% of total emissions) by 0.8%.
According to the European Commission, primary energy consumption declined by 0.7% in 2018 (-0.1% only for final energy consumption), which is insufficient to meet the 2020 targets. The highest annual reductions in primary energy consumption were posted in Belgium, Austria and Greece, whereas the largest increases were observed in Estonia, Latvia and Luxembourg. Between 2005 and 2018, primary energy consumption decreased in all Member States except Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia and Poland. Primary energy intensity fell in all Member States between 2005 and 2018; however, it grew in Denmark, Estonia and Luxemburg in recent years (between 2015 and 2018).
According to the Swiss government, final energy consumption in Switzerland slightly increased in 2019 (+0.3%) due to cooler temperatures, economic growth (+0.9%), demographic growth (+0.7%) and increasing fleet of motor vehicles (+0.8%). This rising trend was offset by continued energy efficiency and substitution effects.
According to preliminary figures from Citepa, France’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions declined by 0.9% in 2019, from 445 MtCO2eq in 2018 to 441 MtCO2eq in 2019. This is due to a decline in GHG emissions from the residential and tertiary sector (-2.7%, i.e. -2.2 MtCO2eq, with a 2.3% drop for households and a 3.2% decline for services), in the energy sector (-0.7%, including -1.5% for power generation), and in waste processing (-2.2%). In 2019, CO2 emissions dipped by 1%, from 331.5 Mt to 328.2 Mt (-3.3 Mt), while methane emissions contracted by 0.7% (-0.4 MtCO2eq).